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Application and method of manufacturing diamond tools

by Administrator | 1173 comments

With the development of the automotive, aviation and aerospace technology, material properties and processing technology for increasing demand. New materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic, particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (PRMMC) and ceramic materials are widely used. These materials have high strength, good wear resistance, low coefficient of thermal expansion and other characteristics, which determines when the machining thereof is very short tool life. 
Development of new wear-resistant and stable superhard cutting tool is the subject of many universities, research institutes and business research. 

Diamond set mechanical, optical, thermal, acoustic, optical, and many other excellent performance in one, with a high hardness, low coefficient of friction, high thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient and chemical inertness low, is an ideal material for the manufacture of the tool. In this paper, the recent development of a method for manufacturing diamond tools provide an overview. 

Applications 1 diamond tool 
Processing (1) difficult to machine non-ferrous materials 
When the processing of copper, zinc, aluminum and other nonferrous metals and alloys, materials easy to adhere to the tool, processing difficulties. Using diamond low coefficient of friction, and non-ferrous metal affinity small features, diamond tools and cutting tools can effectively prevent the occurrence of metal bonding. In addition, since diamond elastic modulus, small deformation when the cutting portion of the cutting of non-ferrous metal extrusion deformation, the cutting process can be completed at small deformation, which can improve the surface quality. 
(2) difficult to machine processing of non-metallic materials 
Processing particle contains a lot of high hardness difficult to process non-metallic materials, such as glass fiber reinforced plastic, filled silicon material, rigid carbon fiber / epoxy composite material when hard particles of materials to make the tool wear serious, hard carbide cutting tools processing, and diamond tools, high hardness, wear resistance, and therefore high processing efficiency. 
(3) ultra-precision machining 
With the advent of modern integrated technology, precision machining to develop in the direction of the tool performance put forward a very high demand. Because diamond friction coefficient, low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, can be cut very thin chips, chip easily outflow, with little affinity for other substances, easy BUE, heat a small, high thermal conductivity, heat can be avoided on the blade and the workpiece, and therefore the blade easily passivated small cutting deformation, the surface of high quality can be obtained. 

A method for manufacturing diamond tools 
At present, the main diamond processing method has the following four categories: film coated tools, welding thick-film diamond tools, diamond tools and single crystal diamond sintered body tool. 

2.1 Thin Film Coated Tools 
Film coated tools are in good rigidity and high temperature properties of diamond thin films deposited on the collective material made ​​by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tools. 
Since the Si3N4-based ceramics, WC-Co-based cemented carbide with the diamond thermal expansion coefficient of W close to the metal and a small thermal stress generated during film formation, and therefore can be used as a base material WC-Co based cemented carbide body, the adhesive Co is easy to make the presence of the diamond film and the substrate between the formed graphite to reduce the adhesive strength, the need for pre-treatment prior to deposition in order to eliminate the influence of Co (typically by acid etching to Co). 
A chemical vapor deposition method is a method for the use of certain C-containing gas source is activated at a very low gas pressure, so that carbon is deposited in a certain area, the carbon atoms in the condensation, the deposition process for forming a diamond phase. Currently used for the deposition of diamond by CVD include: microwave, hot filament, DC arc jet method. 
Advantages of diamond films are used in a variety of complex geometry tools, such as with a chip blades, end mills, reamers and drills; may be used to cut a lot of non-metallic materials, cutting force when cutting small, small deformation, smooth, abrasion slow deformation of the workpiece is not easy for the good of the workpiece material, tolerances finishing. The main drawback is the poor adhesion of diamond film and the substrate, the diamond film does not have a heavy grind knives. 

2.2 diamond thick welding tool 
Thick welded diamond cutting tool production process generally includes: preparing a large area diamond film; will cut diamond film cutter shape and size needed; welding and cutting tool diamond thick film substrate material; thick cutting edge diamond grinding and polishing . 
Preparation and cutting (1) diamond films 
Commonly used process for the preparation of diamond films is a DC plasma jet CVD method. The diamond deposition to WC-Co alloy (mirror-finished surface) on the substrate in the cooling process, the diamond film off automatically. This method is fast deposition rate (up to 930μm / h), combined with relatively close between the lattice, but the growth of the surface is rough. Diamond films of high hardness, wear resistance, non-conductive cutting method determines its laser cutting (cutting can be performed in air, oxygen and argon environment). Use of laser cutting diamond thick film can not only cut to desired shape and size, but also the angle of the tool can be cut out, with a narrow kerf, efficient and so on.

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